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Chapter 3: Progressing (Vibhuti Pada)


Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.


.1 Concentration (dharana) is the process of holding or fixing the attention of mind

onto one object or place, and is the sixth of the eight rungs.

(deshah bandhah chittasya dharana)

deshah = place, object, point, spot

bandhah = binding to, holding, fixing, uniting

chittasya = of the mind, consciousness

dharana = concentration, focusing, directing attention


2 The repeated continuation, or uninterrupted stream of that one point of focus is

called absorption in meditation (dhyana), and is the seventh of the eight steps.

(tatra pratyaya ekatanata dhyanam)

tatra = there, therein (in that place or desha of 3.1)

pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content

of mind, presented idea, cognition

ekatanata = one continuous flow of uninterrupted attention (eka = one; tanata

= continued directedness)

dhyanam = meditation


3 When only the essence of that object, place, or point shines forth in the mind, as if

devoid even of its own form, that state of deep absorption is called deep concentration

or samadhi, which is the eighth rung.

(tad eva artha matra nirbhasam svarupa shunyam iva samadhih)

tad = that

eva = the same

artha = object, place, point

matra = only, alone

nirbhasam = shines forth, appears

svarupa = own form, own nature (sva = own; rupe = form, nature)

shunyam = devoid of, empty

iva = as if, as it were

samadhih = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the

state of perfected concentration


Sayama is the finer tool


4 The three processes of dharana, dhyana, and samadhi, when taken together on

the same object, place or point is called samyama.

(trayam ekatra sayama)

trayam = the three

ekatra = together, as one

sayama = Self Control, dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together


5 Through the mastery of that three-part process of samyama, the light of

knowledge, transcendental insight, or higher consciousness (prajna) dawns, illumines,

flashes, or is visible.

(tad jayat prajna lokah)

tad = of that

jayat = achievement, mastery

prajna = light of knowledge, transcendental insight, higher consciousness

lokah = flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns


6 That three-part process of samyama is gradually applied to the finer planes,

states, or stages of practice.

(tasya bhumisu viniyogah)

tasya = its, of that

bhumisu = to the planes, states, stages

viniyogah = application, practice

Internal is seen to be external


7 These three practices of concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and

samadhi are more intimate or internal than the previous five practices.

(trayam antar angam purvebhyah)

trayam = these three

antar = more internal, inner, intimate

angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members,

constituents (2.28)

purvebhyah = preceding, previous


8 However, these three practices are external, and not intimate compared to nirbija

samadhi, which is samadhi that has no object, nor even a seed object on which there

is concentration.

(tad api bahir angam nirbijasya)

tad = these, they

api = even, also, compared to

bahir = outer, external

angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members,

constituents

nirbijasya = seedless samadhi, having no seed (nir = without; bijah = seed)


Witnessing subtle transitions with Samyama


9 That high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of

transition when there is a convergence of the rising tendency of deep impressions, the

subsiding tendency, and the attention of the mind field itself.

(vyutthana nirodhah samskara abhibhava pradurbhavau nirodhah ksana chitta

anvayah nirodhah-parinamah)

vyutthana = emergence, coming out, rising

nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of

samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

abhibhava = disappearance, subsiding

pradurbhavau = manifesting, appearance

nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of

ksana = with the moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.53)

chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field

anvayah = connection with, conjunction

nirodhah-parinamah = transition to nirodhah (nirodhah = mastery,

coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of (1.2); parinamah = transition,

transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration)


10 The steady flow of this state (nirodhah-parinamah) continues by the creation of

deep impressions (samskaras) from doing the practice.

(tasya prashanta vahita samskarat)

tasya = its (referring to the mind in the state of nirodhah-parinamah, in the

last sutra)

prashanta = undisturbed, steady, continuous, peaceful, calm, tranquil

vahita = flow

samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits


11 The mastery called samadhi-parinamah is the transition whereby the tendency to

all-pointedness subsides, while the tendency to one-pointedness arises.

(sarvarathata ekagrata ksaya udaya chittasya samadhi-parinamah)

sarvarathata = many pointedness, all pointedness, experiencing all points

ekagrata = one-pointedness

ksaya = dwindling, destruction, decay

udaya = rising, uprising

chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

samadhi-parinamah = transition to samadhi (samadhi = meditation in its

higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected

concentration; parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,

consequence, mutative effect, alteration)


12 The mastery called ekagrata-parinamah is the transition whereby the same onepointedness

arises and subsides sequentially.

(tatah punah shanta-uditau tulya-pratyayau chittasya ekagrata-parinimah)

tatah = then

punah = again, sequentially

shanta-uditau = the subsiding and arising, past and present

tulya-pratyayau = having similar

chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

ekagrata-parinimah = transition of one-pointedness (ekagrata = onepointedness;

parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,

consequence, mutative effect, alteration)


13 These three transition processes also explain the three transformations of form,

time, and characteristics, and how these relate to the material elements and senses.

(etena bhuta indriyasau dharma laksana avastha parinamah vyakhyatah)

etena = by this, by these

bhuta = elements

indriyasau = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

dharma = form, quality

laksana = time characteristics

avastha = state of old or new, condition

parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration

vyakhyatah = are described


14 There is an unmanifest, indescribable substratum or existence that is common or

contained within all of the other forms or qualities.

(shanta udita avyapadeshya dharma anupati dharmi)

shanta = latent past

udita = arising

avyapadeshya = indescribable, unpredictable, unmanifest

dharma = form, quality, characteristics

anupati = closely following, common, conforming with all, contained in

dharmi = the object containing the characteristics, substratum, existence


15 Change in the sequence of the characteristics is the cause for the different

appearances of results, consequences, or effects.

(krama anyatvam parinamah anyatve hetu)

krama = sequence, succession, order

anyatvam = distinctness, different phases

parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration, natural laws or functions of nature

anyatve = for the distinctness, differentiation

hetu = the reason


16 By samyama on the three-fold changes in form, time, and characteristics, there

comes knowledge of the past and future.

(parinimah traya samyama atita anagata jnana)

parinimah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration

traya = three

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together

atita = past

anagata = future

jnana = knowledge


Experiences from Sayama


17 The name associated with an object, the object itself implied by that name, and

the conceptual existence of the object, all three usually interpenetrate or commingle

with one another. By sayama on the distinction between these three, the meaning of

the sounds made by all beings becomes available.

(shabda artha pratyaya itaretara adhyasat samkara tat pravibhaga samyama sarva

bhuta ruta jnana)

shabda = name of an object, word, sound

artha = object implied, meaning

pratyaya = idea, concept, conceptual existence

itaretara = one another, of each with the others

adhyasa = due to the convergence, coincidence, overlaying, interpenetrating,

superimposition, commingle

samkara = confusion, appearing to be one, mixed together

tat = these

pravibhaga = distinctions, differentiations, separate

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

sarva = all

bhuta = of living being (beings that are in form, as bhuta = five elements)

ruta = sounds produced, language, speech

jnana = knowledge, meaning


18 Through the direct perception of the latent impressions (samskaras) comes the

knowledge of previous incarnations.

(samskara saksat karanat purva jati jnanam)

samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

saksat = direct, immediate contact

karanat = perception, experiencing

purva = of previous

jati = birth, incarnation

jnana = knowledge


19 By samyama on the notions or presented ideas comes knowledge of another's

mind.

(pratyayasya para chitta jnana)

pratyayasya = notions, presented ideas, of the content of the mind,

conceptions

para = other

chitta = of the mental images, consciousness, of the consciousness of the

mind-field

jnana = knowledge


20 But the underlying support of that knowledge (of the other persons mind, in


19) remains unperceived or out of reach.

(na cha tat salambana tasya avisayin bhutatvat)

[Note: This sutra is not included in all renditions]

na = not

cha = but

tat = that

salambana = with support

tasya = its

avisayin = unperceived, not within reach, not being the subject of, absent from

bhutatvat = to be, beingness


21 When samyama is done on the form of one's own physical body, the illumination

or visual characteristic of the body is suspended, and is thus invisible to other people.

(kaya rupa samyama tat grahya shakti tat stambhe chaksuh prakasha asamprayoga

antardhanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 20]

kaya = body

rupa = form

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

tat = that

grahya = can be perceived, capable of receiving

shakti = power, capacity

tat = that

stambhe = to be checked, suspended

chaksuh = of the eye

prakasha = light, illumination, visual characteristic

asamprayoga = there being no contact, disconnected, separated contact

antardhanam = invisibility, disappearance


22 In the same way as described in relation to sight (3.21), one is able to suspend

the ability of the body to be heard, touched, tasted, or smelled.

(etena shabdadi antardhanam uktam)

[Note: This sutra is not included in all renditions]

etena = by this

shabdadi = sound and others

antardhanam = disappearance, suspend, arrest

uktam = is explained


23 Karma is of two kinds, either fast or slow to manifest; by samyama on these

karmas comes foreknowledge of the time of death.

(sopakramam nirupakramam cha karma tat samyama aparanta jnanam aristebhyah

va)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.21 or 3.22]

sopakramam = fast to fructify, quick to manifest, immediate, active

nirupakramam = slow to fructify, dormant, less ative

cha = or

karma = action, fruits of action

tat = that

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

aparanta = death

jnana = knowledge

aristebhyah = by portents, foreknowledge

va = or


24 By samyama on friendliness (and the other attitudes of 1.33), there comes great

strength of that attitude.

(maitri dishu balani)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.22 or 3.23]

maitri = friendliness (and others of 1.33)

dishu = et cetera

balani = power, strength


25 By samyama on the strength of elephants comes a similar strength.

(baleshu hasti baladini)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.23 or 3.24]

baleshu = strength, power

hasti = elephants

baladini = power


26 By directing the flash of inner light of higher sensory activity, knowledge of

subtle objects, those hidden from view, and those very distant can be attained.

(pravrittyah aloka nyasat suksma vyavahita viprakrista jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.24 or 3.25]

pravrittyah = higher sensory activity, the inner light

aloka = light, flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns (3.5)

nyasat = by directing, focusing, projecting (through samyama)

suksma = subtle

vyavahita = hidden, concealed, veiled

viprakrista = distant, remote

jnana = knowledge


27 By samyama on the inner sun, knowledge of the many subtle realms can be

known.

(bhuvana jnanam surya samyamat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.25 or 3.26]

bhuvana = realms, universe, regions, subtle worlds

jnana = knowledge

surya = inner sun

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)


28 By samyama on the moon, knowledge of the arrangement of the inner stars can

be known.

(chandra tara vyuha jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.26 or 3.27]

chandra = on the moon, lunar

tara = of the stars

vyuha = of the system, arrangement

jnana = knowledge


29 By samyama on the pole-star, knowledge of the movement of those stars can be

known.

dhurve tad gati jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.27 or 3.28]

dhurve = on the pole-star

tad = their

gati = movement

jnana = knowledge


30 By samyama on the navel center, knowledge of the arrangement of the systems

of the body can be known.

(nabhi chakra kaya vyuha jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.28 or 3.29]

nabhi = of the navel

chakra = energy center, wheel, plexus

kaya = of the body

vyuha = of the system, arrangement

jnana = knowledge


31 By samyama on the pit of the throat, hunger and thirst leave.

(kantha kupe ksut pipasa nivrittih)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.29 or 3.30]

kantha = of the throat

kupe = in the pit of

ksut = hunger

pipasa = thirst

nivrittih = leave, retreat, cease


32 By samyama on the tortoise channel, below the throat, steadiness is attained.

(kurma nadyam sthairyam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.30 or 3.31]

kurma = tortoise

nadyam = pit, tube duct, channel

sthairyam = steadiness


33 By samyama on the coronal light of the head, visions of the siddhas, the masters

can come.

(murdha jyotisi siddha darshanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.31 or 3.32]

murdha = crown of the head

jyotisi = the bright effulgence, lucidity, luminosity, inner light, supreme or

divine light

siddha = perfected ones, masters

darshanam = vision


34 Or, through the intuitive light of higher knowledge, anything might become

known.

(pratibhad va sarvam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 32 or 33]

pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination

va = or

sarvam = all


35 By practicing samyama on the heart, knowledge of the mind is attained.

(hirdaye chitta samvit)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 33 or 34]

hirdaye = heart

chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field

samvit = knowledge


36 The having of experiences comes from a presented idea only when there is a

commingling of the subtlest aspect of mind (sattva) and pure consciousness

(purusha), which are really quite different. Samyama on the pure consciousness,

which is distinct from the subtlest aspect of mind, reveals knowledge of that pure

consciousness.

(sattva purusayoh atyanta asankirnayoh pratyaya avishesah bhogah pararthatvat

svartha samyamat purusha-jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.34 or 3.35]

sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation

purusayoh = purusha, pure consciousness

atyanta = quite, extremely, totally, completely

asankirnayoh = distinct, unmixed, not commingled

pratyaya = presented idea, concept, conceptual existence

avishesah = with no distinction, absence

bhogah = experience

pararthatvat = for the interest, existence, purpose of another

svartha = for its own, self-interest

samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

purusha = a consciousness, Self

jnana = knowledge


37 From the light of the higher knowledge of that pure consciousness or purusha

(3.36) arises higher, transcendental, or divine hearing, touch, vision, taste, and smell.

(tatah pratibha sravana vedana adarsha asvada varta jayanta)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.35 or 3.36]

tatah = thence

pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination

sravana = higher, transcendental, or divine hearing

vedana = higher, transcendental, or divine touch

adarsha = higher, transcendental, or divine vision

asvada = higher, transcendental, or divine taste

varta = higher, transcendental, or divine smell

jayanta = proceed, arises, occur, produced


What to do with subtle experiences


38 These experiences resulting from samyama are obstacles to samadhi, but appear

to be attainments or powers to the outgoing or worldly mind.

(te samadhau upasargah vyutthane siddhayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.36 or 3.37]

te = these (attainments)

samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the

state of perfected concentration

upasrga = obstacles, hindrances, impediments

vyutthana = to the outgoing mind, worldly mind

siddhi = attainments, powers, perfections, subtle experiences, psychic abilities


More attainments from Sayama


39 By loosening or letting go of the causes of bondage and attachment, and by

following the knowledge of how to go forth into the passages of the mind, there comes

the ability to enter into another body.

(bandha karana shaithilyat prachara samvedanat cha chittasya para sharira aveshah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.37 or 3.38]

bandha = bondage, attachment

karana = cause

shaithilyat = relaxation, letting go, loosening

prachara = passages, means of going forth, moving through

samvedanat = by knowledge of

cha = and

chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

para = another, other

sharira = body

aveshah = entering into


40 By the mastery over udana, the upward flowing prana vayu, there is a cessation

of contact with mud, water, thorns, and other such objects, and there ensues the

rising or levitation of the body.

(udana jayat jala panka kantaka adisu asangah utkrantih cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.38 or 3.39]

udana = one of the five prana vayus (upward flow of prana in the body)

jaya = by mastery

jala = water

panka = mud, as in a swamp

kantaka = thorn

adisu = and with others, et cetera

asangah = no contact, no adhesion, cessation of contact

utkrantih = rising, ascension, levitation

cha = and


41 By mastery over samana, the prana flowing in the navel area, there comes

effulgence, radiance, or fire.

(samana jayat jvalanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.39 or 3.40]

samana = one of the five prana vayus (prana in navel area)

jaya = by mastery

jvalana = effulgence, radiance, fire


42 By samyama over the relation between space and the power of hearing, the

higher, divine power of hearing comes.

(shrotra akashayoh sambandha samyamat divyam shrotram)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.40 or 3.41]

shrotra = ear, the power of hearing

akasha = space, ether

sambandha = over the relation

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

divyam = higher, divine

shrotram = ear


43 By Samyama on the relationship between the body and space (akasha) and by

concentrating on the lightness of cotton, passage through space can be attained.

(kaya akashayoh sambandha samyamat laghu tula samatatti cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.41 or 3.42]

kaya = body

akasha = space, ether

sambandha = relationship

samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

laghu = light

tula = cotton fiber

samatatti = attainment, become one with

cha = and


44 When the formless thought patterns of mind are projected outside of the body, it

is called maha-videha, a great disincarnate one. By samyama on that outward

projection, the veil over the spiritual light is removed.

(bahih akalpita vrittih maha-videha tatah prakasha avarana ksayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.42 or 3.43]

bahih = external, outside, passing outward, projected outside

akalpita = formless, outside, unimaginable, unidentified,

vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

maha-videha = great one existing without a body, disincarnate

tatah = by that

prakasha = spiritual light

avarana = covering, veil

ksayah = removed, destroyed


45 By samyama on the five forms of the elements (bhutas), which are gross form,

essence, subtleness, interconnectedness, and its purpose, then mastery over those

bhutas is attained.

(sthula svarupa suksma anvaya arthavattva samyamad bhuta-jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.43 or 3.44]

sthula = gross

svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form)

suksma = subtle, astral

anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration

arthavattva = purposefulness

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

bhuta = the elements (earth, water, fire, air, space)

jayah = mastery


46 Through that mastery over the elements, comes the abilities of making the body

atomically small, perfect, and indestructible in its characteristics or components, as

well as bringing other such powers.

(tatah anima adi pradurbhavah kaya sampad tad dharma anabhighata cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.44 or 3.45]

tatah = by that

anima = making miniature, atomic size

adi = and others (other such powers)

pradurbhavah = manifestion of

kaya = body

sampad = perfection

tad = their

dharma = characteristics, components

anabhighata = non-resistance, without obstruction, indestructible

cha = and


47 This perfection of the body includes beauty, gracefulness, strength, and

adamantine hardness in taking the blows that come.

(rupa lavanya bala vajra samhanana kaya-sampat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.45 or 3.46]

rupa = form, beauty, appearance

lavanya = gracefulness, charm, ability to attract

bala = strength, energy

vajra = adamantine, hardness

samhanana = ability to bear strokes or hardness

kaya-sampat = perfection of the body


48 By samyama on the process of perception and action, essence, I-ness,

connectedness, and purposefulness of senses and acts, mastery over those senses

and acts (indriyas) is attained.

(grahana svarupa asmita anvaya arthavattva samyamad indriya jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.46 or 3.47]

grahana = process of perception and action

svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form)

asmita = I-ness, individuality

anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration

arthavattva = purposefulness

samyamad = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

indriya = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

jayah = mastery


49 By that mastery over the senses and acts (indriyas), there comes quickness of

mind, perception with the physical instruments of perception, and mastery over the

primal cause out of which manifestation arises.

(tatah mano-javitvam virarana-bhavah pradhaua jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.47 or 3.48]

tatah = by that

manas = mind

javitva = quickness, speed

virarana-bhavah = perception with instrument of perception, i.e., with the body

or physical senses

pradhaua = the primal cause out of which there is manifestation

jayah = mastery


Renunciation that brings kaivalya or liberation


50 To one well established in the knowledge of the distinction between the purest

aspect of mind and consciousness itself, there comes supremacy over all forms or

states of existence, as well as over all forms of knowing.

(sattva purusha anyata khyati matrasya sarva-bhava adhisthatrittvam sarvajnatritvam

cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.48 or 3.49]

sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest

aspect of buddhi

purusha = pure consciousness

anyata = distinction between, difference

khyati = through knowledge, vision, discernment, correct cognition, clarity,

awareness

matrasya = only, merely

sarva-bhava = over all states or forms of existence, omnipotence (sarva = all;

bhava = states or forms of existence)

adhisthatrittvam = supremacy

sarva-jnatritvam = all knowingness, omniscience (sarva = all; jnatritvam =

knowingness)

cha = and


51 With non-attachment or desirelessness even for that supremacy over forms and

states of existence and the omniscience (3.50), the seeds at the root of those

bondages are destroyed, and absolute liberation is attained.

(tad vairagya api dosa bija ksaya kaivalyam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.49 or 3.50]

tad = that

vairagya = desirelessness, non-attachment, dispassion

api = also, even

dosa = impairment, bondage, defect, imperfection

bija = seed

ksaya = with the elimination, destruction

kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom


52 When invited by the celestial beings, no cause should be allowed to arise in the

mind that would allow either acceptance of the offer, or the smile of pride from

receiving the invitation, because to allow such thoughts to arise again might create

the possibility of repeating undesirable thoughts and actions.

(sthani upanimantrane sanga smaya akaranam punuh anista prasangat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.50 or 3.51]

sthani = celestial beings, those of high spiritual position, presiding deities,

devas

upanimantrane = invitation, on being invited by

sanga = association, coming together with, acceptance, attachment

smaya = pride, smile of happiness

akaranam = no cause, no reason for action, not entertain

punuh = again, repeat, renew, revive

anista = undesirable

prasangat = possibility of being caught or having connection


Higher discrimination through Sayama


53 By samyama over the moments and their succession, there comes the higher

knowledge that is born from discrimination.

(ksana tat kramayoh samyamat viveka-jam jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.51 or 3.52]

ksana = moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.9)

tat = its

krama = sequence, succession

samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

viveka = discrimination, discernment

ja = born of

jnana = knowledge, gnosis


54 From that discriminative knowledge (3.53) comes awareness of the difference or

distinction between two similar objects, which are not normally distinguishable by

category, characteristics, or position in space.

(jati laksana desha anyata anavachchhedat tulyayoh tatah pratipattih)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.52 or 3.53]

jati = genus, species, category, type

laksana = time characteristics, appearance, distinctive mark

desha = place, position in space

anyata = distinction, separateness, difference

anavachchhedat = undefined, not separated, indistinguishable

tulyayoh = of two similar objects, the same category or class, equal

tatah = thereby, from that

pratipattih = knowledge distinction, distinguishable knowledge


55 That higher knowledge is intuitive and transcendent, and is born of

discrimination; it includes all objects within its field, all conditions related to those

objects, and is beyond any succession.

(tarakam sarva visayam sarvatha visayam akramam cha iti viveka jam jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.53 or 3.54]

tarakam = transcendent, intuitional,

sarva = all

visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits

sarvatha = in all ways, by all means

visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits

akramam = beyond succession, non-sequential

cha = and

iti = this

viveka = discrimination, discernment

ja = born

jnana = knowledge, gnosis


56 With the attainment of equality between the purest aspect of sattvic buddhi and

the pure consciousness of purusha, there comes absolute liberation, and that is the

end.

(sattva purusayoh suddhi samye kaivalyam iti)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.54 or 3.55]

sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest

aspect of buddhi

purusayoh = pure consciousness

suddhi = purity

samye = equality

kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom

iti = this, end, finish


 

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