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Chapter 2: Practices (Sadhana Pada)


Minimizing gross colorings that veil the Self


1 Yoga in the form of action (kriya yoga) has three parts: 1) training and purifying

the senses (tapas), 2) self-study in the context of teachings (svadhyaya), and 3)

devotion and letting go into the creative source from which we emerged (ishvara

pranidhana).

(tapah svadhyaya ishvara-pranidhana kriya-yogah)

tapah = accepting the purifying aspects of painful experience, purifying action,

training the senses

svadhyaya = self-study in the context of teachings, remembrance of sacred

word or mantra

ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher

pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits

of practice

kriya-yogah = yoga of practice, action, practical yoga


2 That Yoga of action (kriya yoga) is practiced to bring about samadhi and to

minimize the colored thought patterns (kleshas).

(samadhi bhavana arthah klesha tanu karanarthah cha)

samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration

bhavana = to bring about, cultivate

arthah = for the purpose of

klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure

tanu-karana = minimize, to make fine, attenuate, weaken

arthah = for the purpose

cha = and


3 There are five kinds of coloring (kleshas): 1) forgetting, or ignorance about the

true nature of things (avidya), 2) I-ness, individuality, or egoism (asmita), 3)

attachment or addiction to mental impressions or objects (raga), 4) aversion to

thought patterns or objects (dvesha), and 5) love of these as being life itself, as well

as fear of their loss as being death.

(avidya asmita raga dvesha abhinivesha pancha klesha)

avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience

asmita = associated with I-ness

raga = attraction or drawing to, addiction

dvesha = aversion or pushing away, hatred

abhinivesha = resistance to loss, fear of death of identity, desire for continuity,

clinging to the life of

pancha = five

klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause

trouble; (klesha is the noun form of the adjective klishta)


4 The root forgetting or ignorance of the nature of things (avidya) is the breeding

ground for the other of the five colorings (kleshas), and each of these is in one of four

states: 1) dormant or inactive, 2) attenuated or weakened, 3) interrupted or

separated from temporarily, or 4) active and producing thoughts or actions to varying

degrees.

(avidya kshetram uttaresham prasupta tanu vicchinna udaranam)

avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience

kshetram = field, breeding ground

uttaresham = for the others

prasupta = dormant, latent, seed

tanu = attenuated, weakened

vicchinna = distanced, separated, cut off, intercepted, alternated

udaranam = fully active, aroused, sustained


5 Ignorance (avidya) is of four types: 1) regarding that which is transient as eternal,

2) mistaking the impure for pure, 3) thinking that which brings misery to bring

happiness, and 4) taking that which is not-self to be self.

(antiya ashuchi duhkha anatmasu nitya shuchi sukha atman khyatih avidya)

antiya = non-eternal, impermanent, ephemeral

ashuchi = impure

duhkha = painful, sorrowful, suffering

anatmasu = non-self, non-atman

nitya = eternal, everlasting

shuchi = pure

sukha = pleasurable, pleasant

atman = Self, soul

khyatih = taking to be, supposing to be, seeing as if

avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience


6 The coloring (klesha) of I-ness or egoism (asmita), which arises from the

ignorance, occurs due to the mistake of taking the intellect (buddhi, which knows,

decides, judges, and discriminates) to itself be pure consciousness (purusha/drig).

(drig darshana shaktyoh ekatmata iva asmita)

drig = consciousness itself as seeing agent

darshana-shaktyoh = the instrument of seeing, power of intellect or buddhi to

observe (darshana = seeing; shakti = power)

ekatmata = identity, with oneself (eka = one; atmata = selfness

iva = appearing to be, apparently as if

asmita = I-ness


7 Attachment (raga) is a separate modification of mind, which follows the rising of

the memory of pleasure, where the three modifications of attachment, pleasure, and

the memory of the object are then associated with one another.

(sukha anushayi ragah)

sukha = pleasure

anushayi = sequential attraction to, closely following, secondary

accompaniment, resting on

ragah = attachment, addiction


8 Aversion (dvesha) is a modification that results from misery associated with some

memory, whereby the three modifications of aversion, pain, and the memory of the

object or experience are then associated with one another.

(dukha anushayi dvesha)

dukha = pain, sorrow, suffering

anushayi = sequential attraction to, closely following, secondary

accompaniment, resting on

dvesha = aversion or pushing away, hatred


9 Even for those people who are learned, there is an ever-flowing, firmly established

love for continuation and a fear of cessation, or death, of these various colored

modifications (kleshas).

(sva-rasa-vahi vidushah api tatha rudhah abhiniveshah)

sva-rasa-vahi = flowing on its own momentum (sva = own; rasa = inclination,

momentum, potency; vahi = flowing)

vidushah = in the wise or learned person

api = even

tatha = the same way

rudhah = firmly established

abhiniveshah = resistance to loss, fear of death of identity, desire for

continuity, clinging to the life of

Dealing with subtle impressions that veil the Self (2.10-2.11)


10 When the five types of colorings (kleshas) are in their subtle, merely potential

form, they are then destroyed by their disappearance or cessation into and of the field

of mind itself.

(te pratipasava heyah sukshmah)

te = these

pratipasava = involution, resolving back into the cause from which they arose

heyah = to be overcome, reduced, abandoned, destroyed, eliminated

sukshmah = subtle


11 When the modifications still have some potency of coloring (klishta), they are

brought to the state of mere potential by meditation (dhyana).

(dhyana heyah tat vrittayah)

dhyana = meditation

heyah = to be overcome, reduced, abandoned, destroyed

tat = that

vrittayah = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or

various forms of the mind-field


Breaking the alliance of karma


12 Latent impressions that are colored (karmashaya) result from other actions

(karmas) that were brought about by colorings (kleshas), and become active and

experienced in a current life or a future life.

(klesha-mula karma-ashaya drishta adrishta janma vedaniyah)

klesha-mula = having colorings as its origin (klesha = colored, painful,

afflicted, impure; mula = origin, root)

karma-ashaya = repository of karma (karma = actions stemming from the

deep impressions of samskaras; ashaya = repository, accumulation, deposit,

vehicle, reservoir, womb)

drishta = seen, visible, experienced consciously, present

adrishta = unseen, invisible, only experienced unconsciously, future

janma = in births

vedaniyah = to be experienced


13 As long as those colorings (kleshas) remains at the root, three consequences are

produced: 1) birth, 2) span of life, and 3) experiences in that life.

(sati mule tat vipakah jati ayus bhogah)

sati = since being here, being present, existing

mule = to be at the root

tat = of that

vipakah = ripening, fruition, maturation

jati = type of birth, species, state of life

ayus = span of life, lifetime

bhogah = having experience, resulting enjoyment


14 Because of having the nature of merits or demerits (virtue or vice), these three

(birth, span of life, and experiences) may be experienced as either pleasure or pain.

(te hlada-paritapa-phalah punya apunya hetutvat)

te = they, those (referring to those who take birth, as in the last sutra)

hlada-paritapa-phalah = experiencing pleasure and pain as fruits (hlada =

pleasure, delight; paritapa = pain, agony, anguish; phalah = fruits)

punya = virtuous, meritorious, benevolent

apunya = non-virtuous, vice, bad, wicked, evil, bad, demerit, non-meritorious

hetutvat = having as their cause (the punya or apunya)


15 A wise, discriminating person sees all worldly experiences as painful, because of

reasoning that all these experiences lead to more consequences, anxiety, and deep

habits (samskaras), as well as acting in opposition to the natural qualities.

(parinama tapa samskara duhkhaih guna vrittih virodhat cha duhkham eva sarvam

vivekinah)

parinama = of change, transformation, result, consequence, mutative effect,

alteration

tapa = anxiety, anguish, pain, suffering, misery, torment

samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

duhkhaih = by reason of suffering, sorrows

guna = of the qualities, gunas of prakriti (sattvas, rajas, tamas)

vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

virodhat = because of reasoning the contradictory

cha = and

duhkham = because of the pain, suffering, sorrow

eva = is only

sarvam = all

vivekinah = to one who discriminates, discerns


16 Because the worldly experiences are seen as painful, it is the pain, which is yet

to come that is to be avoided and discarded.

(heyam duhkham anagatam)

heyam = to be discarded, avoided, prevented

duhkham = pain, suffering, sorrow

anagatam = which has not yet come, in the future


17 The uniting of the seer (the subject, or experiencer) with the seen (the object, or

that which is experienced) is the cause or connection to be avoided.

(drashtri drishyayoh samyogah heya hetuh)

drashtri = of the seer, knower, apprehender

drishyayoh = of the seen, knowable

samyogah = union, conjunction

heya = to be discarded, avoided, prevented

hetuh = the cause, reason


18 The objects (or knowables) are by their nature of: 1) illumination or sentience, 2)

activity or mutability, or 3) inertia or stasis; they consist of the elements and the

powers of the senses, and exist for the purpose of experiencing the world and for

liberation or enlightenment.

(prakasha kriya sthiti shilam bhuta indriya atmakam bhoga apavarga artham

drishyam)

prakasha = illumination, light

kriya = of activity

sthiti = steadiness, inertia, stasis

shilam = having the nature of (illumination, activity, steadiness)

bhuta = the elements (earth, water, fire, air, space)

indriya = powers of action and sensation, instruments, mental sense organs

atmakam = consisting of (elements and senses)

bhoga = experience, enjoyment

apavarga = liberation, freedom, emancipation

artham = for the sake of, purpose of, object of

drishyam = the seen, the knowable


19 There are four states of the elements (gunas), and these are: 1) diversified,

specialized, or particularized (vishesha), 2) undiversified, unspecialized, or

unparticularized (avishesha), 3) indicator-only, undifferentiated phenomenal, or

marked only (linga-matra), and 4) without indicator, noumenal, or without mark

(alingani).

(vishesha avishesha linga-matra alingani guna parvani)

vishesha = diversified, specialized, particularized, having differences

avishesha = undiversified, unspecialized, unparticularized, having no

differences

linga-matra = undifferentiated, only a mark or trace (linga = mark, trace;

matra = only)

alingani = without even a mark or trace, undifferentiated subtle matter

guna-parvani = state of the gunas (guna = of the qualities, gunas of prakriti;

parvani = state, stage, level)


20 The Seer is but the force of seeing itself, appearing to see or experience that

which is presented as a cognitive principle.

(drashta drishi matrah suddhah api pratyaya anupashyah)

drashta = the seer

drishi-matrah = power of seeing (drishi = seeing; matrah = power)

suddhah = pure

api = even though, although

pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content

of mind, presented idea, cognition

anupashyah = appearing to see


21 The essence or nature of the knowable objects exists only to serve as the

objective field for pure consciousness.

(tad-artha eva drishyasya atma)

tad-artha = the purpose for that, to serve as (tad = that; artha = purpose)

eva = only

drishyasya = of the seen, knowable

atma = essence, being, existence


22 Although knowable objects cease to exist in relation to one who has experienced

their fundamental, formless true nature, the appearance of the knowable objects is

not destroyed, for their existence continues to be shared by others who are still

observing them in their grosser forms.

(krita-artham prati nashtam api anashtam tat anya sadharanatvat)

krita-artham = one whose purpose has been accomplished (krita =

accomplished; artham = purpose)

prati = towards, with regard to

nashtam = ceased, dissolved, finished, destroyed

api = even, although

anashtam = has not ceased, not dissolved, not finished, not destroyed

tat = that

anya = for others

sadharanatvat = being common to others, due to commonness


23 Having an alliance, or relationship between objects and the Self is the necessary

means by which there can subsequently be realization of the true nature of those

objects by that very Self.

(sva svami saktyoh svarupa upalabdhi hetuh samyogah)

sva = of being owned

svami = of being owner, master, the one who possesses

saktyoh = of the powers

svarupa = of the nature, own nature, own form (sva = own; rupa = form)

upalabdhi = recognition

hetuh = that brings about, the cause, reason

samyogah = union, conjunction


24 Avidya or ignorance (2.3-2.5), the condition of ignoring, is the underlying cause

that allows this alliance to appear to exist.

(tasya hetuh avidya)

tasya = of that (of that alliance, from last sutra)

hetuh = that brings about, the cause, reason

avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience


25 By causing a lack of avidya, or ignorance there is then an absence of the alliance,

and this leads to a freedom known as a state of liberation or enlightenment for the

Seer.

(tat abhavat samyogah abhavah hanam tat drishi kaivalyam)

tat = its

abhavat = due to its disappearance, lack or absence (of that ignorance in the

last sutra)

samyogah = union, conjunction

abhavah = absence, disappearance, dissolution

hanam = removal, cessation, abandonment

tat = that

drishi = of the knower, the force of seeing

kaivalyam = absolute freedom, liberation, enlightenment


The 8 rungs of Yoga are for discrimination


26 Clear, distinct, unimpaired discriminative knowledge is the means of liberation

from this alliance.

(viveka khyatih aviplava hana upayah)

viveka-khyatih = discriminative knowledge (viveka = discriminative,

discernment; khyatih = knowledge, correct cognition, clarity, awareness)

aviplava = undisturbed, without vacillation, uninterrupted

hana = of removal, of avoidance

upayah = the means, way, method


27 Seven kinds of ultimate insight come to one who has attained this degree of

discrimination.

(tasya saptadha pranta bhumih prajna)

tasya = to one, to such a person

saptadha = sevenfold

pranta = final, ultimate

bhumih = stage, level, degree

prajna = discrimination, insight, wisdom, cognizing consciousness


28 Through the practice of the different limbs, or steps to Yoga, whereby impurities

are eliminated, there arises an illumination that culminates in discriminative wisdom,

or enlightenment.

(yoga anga anusthanad ashuddhi kshaye jnana diptih a viveka khyateh)

yoga-anga= rungs of yoga (yoga = yoga; anga = rungs, limbs, accessories,

components, steps, parts, members, constituents)

anusthanad = by the sustained practice, observance, performance

ashuddhi = impurities,

kshaye = with the elimination, destruction

jnana = of wisdom, knowledge,

diptih = light, brilliance, shining, radiance

a = until, up to

viveka-khyatih = discriminative knowledge (viveka = discriminative,

discernment; khyatih = knowledge, correct cognition, clarity, awareness)


29 The eight rungs, limbs, or steps of Yoga are the codes of self-regulation or

restraint (yamas), observances or practices of self-training (niyamas), postures

(asana), expansion of breath and prana (pranayama), withdrawal of the senses

(pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and perfected

concentration (samadhi).

(yama niyama asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhi ashtau angani)

yama = codes of restraint, abstinences, self-regulations

niyama = observances, practices, self-training

asana = meditation posture (from the root ~as, which means "to sit")

pranayama = expansion of breath and prana, regulation, control

pratyahara = withdrawal of the indriyas (the senses), bringing inward

dharana = concentration

dhyana = meditation

samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the

state of perfected concentration

ashtau = eight

angani = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members,

constituents

Yamas and Niyamas, rungs #1 and #2 (2.30-2.34)


30 Non-injury or non-harming (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), abstention from

stealing (asteya), walking in awareness of the highest reality (brahmacharya), and

non-possessiveness or non-grasping with the senses (aparigraha) are the five yamas,

or codes of self-regulation or restraint, and are the first of the eight steps of Yoga.

(ahimsa satya asteya brahmacharya aparigraha yama)

ahimsa = non-violence, non-harming, non-injury

satya = truthfulness, honesty

asteya = non-stealing, abstention from theft

brahmacharya = walking in awareness of the highest reality, continence,

remembering the divine, practicing the presence of God

aparigraha = non-possessiveness, non-holding through senses, non-greed,

non-grasping, non-indulgence, non-acquisitiveness

yama = codes of restraint, abstinences, self-regulations


31 These codes of self-regulation or restraint become a great vow when they

become universal and are not restricted by any consideration of the nature of the kind

of living being to whom one is related, nor in any place, time or situation.

(jati desha kala samaya anavachchhinnah sarva-bhaumah maha-vratam)

jati = type of birth, species, state of life

desha = space, place

kala = time

samaya = circumstance, condition, consideration

anavachchhinnah = not limited by

sarva-bhaumah = universal, in all parts (sarva = all; bhaumah = parts,

spheres)

maha-vratam = great vow (maha = great; vratam = vow)


32 Cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha), an attitude of contentment

(santosha), ascesis or training of the senses (tapas), self-study and reflection on

sacred words (svadhyaya), and an attitude of letting go into one's source

(ishvarapranidhana) are the observances or practices of self-training (niyamas), and

are the second rung on the ladder of Yoga.

(shaucha santosha tapah svadhyaya ishvarapranidhana niyamah)

shaucha = purity of body and mind

santosha = contentment

tapah = training the senses, austerities, ascesis

svadhyaya = self-study, reflection on sacred words

ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher

pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits

of practice

niyamah = observances or practices of self-training


33 When these codes of self-regulation or restraint (yamas) and observances or

practices of self-training (niyamas) are inhibited from being practiced due to perverse,

unwholesome, troublesome, or deviant thoughts, principles in the opposite direction,

or contrary thought should be cultivated.

(vitarka badhane pratipaksha bhavanam)

vitarka = troublesome thoughts, deviating (from the yamas and niyamas)

badhane = disturbed by, inhibited by

pratipaksha = to the contrary, opposite thoughts or principles

bhavanam = cultivate, habituate, thought of, contemplate on, reflect on


34 Actions arising out of such negative thoughts are performed directly by oneself,

caused to be done through others, or approved of when done by others. All of these

may be preceded by, or performed through anger, greed or delusion, and can be mild,

moderate or intense in nature. To remind oneself that these negative thoughts and

actions are the causes of unending misery and ignorance is the contrary thought, or

principle in the opposite direction that was recommended in the previous sutra.

(vitarkah himsadayah krita karita anumoditah lobha krodha moha purvakah mridu

madhya adhimatrah dukha ajnana ananta phala iti pratipaksha bhavanam)

vitarkah = troublesome thoughts, deviating (from the yamas and niyamas)

himsadayah = harmful and the others (himsa = harmful; adayah = et cetera,

and so forth)

krita = committed (by oneself)

karita = caused to be done (by others)

anumoditah = consented to, approved of (when done by others)

lobha = greed, desire

krodha = anger

moha = delusion

purvakah = preceded by

mridu = mild, slight

madhya = middling

adhimatrah = intense, extreme

dukha = misery, pain, suffering, sorrow

ajnana = ignorance (a = without; jnana = knowledge)

ananta = infinite, unending (an = un; anta = ending)

phala = fruition, results, effects

iti = thus

pratipaksha = to the contrary, opposite thoughts or principles

bhavanam = cultivate, habituate, thought of, contemplate on, reflect on


Benefits from the Yamas and Niyamas


35 As a Yogi becomes firmly grounded in non-injury (ahimsa), other people who

come near will naturally lose any feelings of hostility.

(ahimsa pratishthayam tat vaira-tyagah)

ahimsa = non-violence, non-harming, non-injury

pratishthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in

tat = that, of his or her

vaira-tyagah = give up hostilities (vaira = hostility, enmity, aggression; tyaga

= abandon, give up)


36 As truthfulness (satya) is achieved, the fruits of actions naturally result according

to the will of the Yogi.

(satya pratisthayam kriya phala ashrayatvam)

satya = truthfulness, honesty

pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in

kriya = actions

phala = fruition, results, effects

ashrayatvam = come as a result of, are dependent on, are subservient to (the

Yogi)


37 When non-stealing (asteya) is established, all jewels, or treasures present

themselves, or are available to the Yogi.

(asteya pratisthayam sarva ratna upasthanam)

asteya = non-stealing, abstention from theft

pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in

sarva = of all

ratna = jewels, treasures

upasthanam = appear, come, approach to him or her, are available, present

themselves


38 When walking in the awareness of the highest reality (brahmacharya) is firmly

established, then a great strength, capacity, or vitality (virya) is acquired.

(brahmacharya pratisthayam virya labhah)

brahmacharya = walking in awareness of the highest reality, absolute reality,

remembering the divine, practicing the presence of God; continence

pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in

virya = strength, vigor, vitality, courage

labhah = is acquired, attained, gained


39 When one is steadfast in non-possessiveness or non-grasping with the senses

(aparigraha), there arises knowledge of the why and wherefore of past and future

incarnations.

(aparigraha sthairye janma kathanta sambodhah)

aparigraha = non-possessiveness, non-holding through senses, non-greed,

non-grasping, non-indulgence, non-acquisitiveness

sthairye = upon being steady in, stability

janma = birth, incarnation

kathanta = how and from where

sambodhah = complete knowledge of


40 Through cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha), one develops an

attitude of distancing, or disinterest towards one's own body, and becomes disinclined

towards contacting the bodies of others.

(sauchat sva-anga jugupsa paraih asamsargah)

sauchat = by cleanliness, purification (of body and mind)

sva-anga = one's own body (sva = one's; anga = limbs, body)

jugupsa = disinclined, distanced from, drawn away from

paraih = and with that of others

asamsargah = cessation of contact, non-association


41 Also through cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha) comes a

purification of the subtle mental essence (sattva), a pleasantness, goodness and

gladness of feeling, a one-pointedness with intentness, the conquest or mastery over

the senses, and a fitness, qualification, or capability for self-realization.

(sattva shuddhi saumanasya ekagra indriya-jaya atma darshana yogyatvani cha)

sattva = purest of subtle essence, internal being

shuddhi = purification of

saumanasya = high-mindedness, cheerfulness, clarity, pleasantness, goodness,

gladness

ekagra = one-pointedness (eka = one; agra = pointedness, intentness)

indriya-jaya = control of the senses (indriya = active and cognitive senses;

jaya = control, regulation, mastery)

atma = of the Self, center of consciousness

darshana = realization, seeing, experiencing

yogyatvani = to be fit for, qualified for

cha = and


42 From an attitude of contentment (santosha), unexcelled happiness, mental

comfort, joy, and satisfaction is obtained.

(santosha anuttamah sukha labhah)

santosha = contentment

anuttamah = unexcelled, extreme, supreme

sukha = pleasure, happiness, comfort, joy, satisfaction

labhah = is acquired, attained, gained


43 Through ascesis or training of the senses (tapas), there comes a destruction of

mental impurities, and an ensuing mastery or perfection over the body and the mental

organs of senses and actions (indriyas).

(kaya indriya siddhih ashuddhi kshayat tapasah)

kaya = of the physical body

indriya = active and cognitive senses

siddhih = attainment, mastery, perfection

ashuddhi = of impurities

kshayat = removal, destruction, elimination

tapasah = training the senses, austerities, ascesis


44 From self-study and reflection on sacred words (svadhyaya), one attains contact,

communion, or concert with that underlying natural reality or force.

(svadhyayat ishta samprayogah)

svadhyayat = self-study, reflection on sacred words

ishta = that which is preferred, chosen, predisposed towards

samprayogah = connected with, in contact, communion


45 From an attitude of letting go into one's source (ishvarapranidhana), the state of

perfected concentration (samadhi) is attained.

(samadhi siddhih ishvarapranidhana)

samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration

siddhih = attainment, mastery, accomplishment, perfection

ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher

pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits

of practice


Asana or meditation posture.


46 The posture (asana) for Yoga meditation should be steady, stable, and

motionless, as well as comfortable, and this is the third of the eight rungs of Yoga.

(sthira sukham asanam)

sthira = steady, stable, motionless

sukham = comfortable, ease filled

asanam = meditation posture (from the root ~as, which means "to sit")


47 The means of perfecting the posture is that of relaxing or loosening of effort, and

allowing attention to merge with endlessness, or the infinite.

(prayatna shaithilya ananta samapattibhyam)

prayatna = tension or effort (related to trying to do the posture)

shaithilya = by relaxing, loosening, lessening, slackening

ananta = infinite, endlessness

samapattibhyam = by focusing attention on, by coalescence, coincidence,

merging


48 From the attainment of that perfected posture, there arises an unassailable,

unimpeded freedom from suffering due to the pairs of opposites (such as heat and

cold, good and bad, or pain and pleasure).

(tatah dvandva anabhighata)

tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that

dvandva = the pairs of opposites, the dualities, dichotomies

anabhighata = unimpeded freedom from suffering, without effect or impact,

cessation of disturbance


Pranayama and breath control.


49 Once that perfected posture has been achieved, the slowing or braking of the

force behind, and of unregulated movement of inhalation and exhalation is called

breath control and expansion of prana (pranayama), which leads to the absence of the

awareness of both, and is the fourth of the eight rungs.

(tasmin sati shvasa prashvsayoh gati vichchhedah pranayamah)

tasmin = upon that (perfection of meditation posture)

sati = being accomplished

shvasa = inhalation

prashvsayoh = exhalation

gati = of the uncontrolled movements

vichchhedah = slowing, softening or braking of the force behind

pranayamah = expansion of prana, regulation of breath


50 That pranayama has three aspects of external or outward flow (exhalation),

internal or inward flow (inhalation), and the third, which is the absence of both during

the transition between them, and is known as fixedness, retention, or suspension.

These are regulated by place, time, and number, with breath becoming slow and

subtle.

(bahya abhyantara stambha vrittih desha kala sankhyabhih paridrishtah dirgha

sukshmah)

bahya = external

abhyantara = internal

stambha = holding, restraint, suspension, stationary, retention, cessation,

transition

vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

desha = place, spot, space, location

kala = time, period, duration

sankhyabhih = by these three, number, count of

paridrishtah = regulated by, observed by

dirgha = made long, prolonged, slow

sukshmah = and subtle, fine


51 The fourth pranayama is that continuous prana which surpasses, is beyond, or

behind those others that operate in the exterior and interior realms or fields.

(bahya abhyantara vishaya akshepi chaturthah)

bahya = external

abhyantara = internal

vishaya = region, spheres, realms, fields

akshepi = going beyond, surpassing, setting aside

chaturthah = the fourth


52 Through that pranayama the veil of karmasheya (2.12) that covers the inner

illumination or light is thinned, diminishes and vanishes.

(tatah kshiyate prakasha avaranam)

tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that

kshiyate = is destroyed, thinned, diminishes, vanishes

prakasha = light, illumination

avaranam = veil, covering


53 Through these practices and processes of pranayama, which is the fourth of the

eight steps, the mind acquires or develops the fitness, qualification, or capability for

true concentration (dharana), which is itself the sixth of the steps.

(dharanasu cha yogyata manasah)

dharanasu = for concentration, for dharana

cha = and

yogyata = fitness, preparedness, qualification, capability

manasah = mind


Pratyahara or sense withdrawal.


54 When the mental organs of senses and actions (indriyas) cease to be engaged

with the corresponding objects in their mental realm, and assimilate or turn back into

the mind-field from which they arose, this is called pratyahara, and is the fifth step.

(sva vishaya asamprayoge chittasya svarupe anukarah iva indriyanam pratyaharah)

sva = their own

vishaya = objects, region, spheres, realms, fields

asamprayoge = not coming into contact with, non-conjunction, cessation of

engagement

chittasya = of the mind field

svarupe = own form, own nature (sva = own; rupe = form, nature)

anukarah = imitate, resemble, follow, be engaged with

iva = like, as though, as it were

indriyanam = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

pratyaharah = withdrawal of the indriyas (the senses), bringing inward


55 Through that turning inward of the organs of senses and actions (indriyas) also

comes a supreme ability, controllability, or mastery over those senses inclining to go

outward towards their objects.

(tatah parama vashyata indriyanam)

tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that

parama = highest, supreme, ultimate, perfected

vashyata = mastery, control, being willed

indriyanam = of the mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

 

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