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Chapter 1: Concentration (Samadhi Pada)

What is Yoga?

1 Now, after having done prior preparation through life and other practices, the

study and practice of Yoga begins.

(atha yoga anushasanam)

atha = now, at this auspicious moment; implying the transition to this practice

and pursuit, after prior preparation; implying a blessing at this moment of


yoga = of yoga, union; literally, to yoke, from the root yuj, which means to

join or to integrate; same as the absorption in samadhi

anu = within, or following tradition; implies being subsequent to something

else, in this case, the prior preparation

shasanam = instruction, discipline, training, teaching, exposition, explanation;

Shas implies the imparting of teaching that happens along with discipline

2 Yoga is the control (nirodhah, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration,

coordination, stilling, quieting, setting aside) of the modifications (gross and subtle

thought patterns) of the mind field.

(yogash chitta vritti nirodhah)

yoga = of yoga, union; literally, to yoke, from the root yuj, which means to

join; same as the absorption in samadhi

chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field

vritti = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration, coordination,

understanding, stilling, quieting, setting aside of

3 Then the Seer abides in Itself, resting in its own True Nature, which is called Selfrealization.

(tada drashtuh svarupe avasthanam)

tada = then, at that time; at the time of concentration and meditation

drashtuh = the seer's, of the soul, witness, Atman, Self; from the root drsh,

which means to see (It is significant to note that Patanjali is not trying to

define who is the seer, or the nature of that seer. This is left to be answered or

resolved in direct experience.)

svarupe = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form)

avasthanam = stability, settling, remaining, being in a state, resting, standing,

lying, abiding; the root stha means to stand

4 At other times, when one is not in Self-realization, the Seer appears to take on the

form of the modifications of the mind field, taking on the identity of those thought


(vritti sarupyam itaratra)

vritti = of the operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or

various forms (of the mind-field)

sarupyam = similarity, assimilation, appearance of, identification of form or

nature, conformity with the shape of; the root sa means with, and rupa means


itaratra = elsewhere, at other times, when not in that state of realization above

Un-coloring your thoughts

5 Those gross and subtle thought patterns (vrittis) fall into five varieties, of which

some are colored (klishta) and others are uncolored (aklishta).

(vrittayah pancatayah klishta aklishta)

vrittayah = the vrittis are

pancatayah = five fold (and of two kinds); panch means five

klishta = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause

trouble; (klesha is the noun form of the adjective klishta)

aklishta = uncolored, not painful, not afflicted, pure; not imbued with kleshas;

the root a- means without or in the absence of; hence, without the coloring

called klishta

6 The five varieties of thought patterns to witness are: 1) knowing correctly

(pramana), 2) incorrect knowing (viparyaya), 3) fantasy or imagination (vikalpa), 4)

the object of void-ness that is deep sleep (nidra), and 5) recollection or memory


(pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smritayah)

pramana = real or valid cognition, right knowledge, valid proof, seeing clearly

viparyayah = unreal cognition, indiscrimination, perverse cognition, wrong

knowledge, misconception, incorrect knowing, not seeing clearly

vikalpah = imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy,


nidra = deep sleep

smritayah = memory, remembering

7 Of these five, there are three ways of gaining correct knowledge (pramana): 1)

perception, 2) inference, and 3) testimony or verbal communication from others who

have knowledge.

(pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani)

pratyaksha = direct perception or cognition

anumana = inference, reasoning, deduction

agamah = authority, testimony, validation, competent evidence

pramanani = valid means of knowing, proofs, sources of correct knowing

8 Incorrect knowledge or illusion (viparyaya) is false knowledge formed by

perceiving a thing as being other than what it really is.

(viparyayah mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham)

viparyayah = unreal cognition, indiscrimination, perverse cognition, wrong

knowledge, misconception, incorrect knowing, not seeing clearly

mithya = of the unreal, of the false, erroneous, illusory

jnanam = knowing, knowledge

atad = not its own, not that

rupa = form, nature, appearance

pratistham = based on, possessing, established, occupying, steadfast, standing

9 Fantasy or imagination (vikalpa) is a thought pattern that has verbal expression

and knowledge, but for which there is no such object or reality in existence.

(shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyah vikalpah)

shabda = word, sound, verbal expression

jnana = by knowledge, knowing

anupati = following, in sequence, depending upon

vastu = a reality, real object, existent

shunyah = devoid, without, empty

vikalpah= imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy, hallucination

10 Dreamless sleep (nidra) is the subtle thought pattern which has as its object an

inertia, blankness, absence, or negation of the other though patterns (vrittis).

(abhava pratyaya alambana vritti nidra)

abhava = absence, non-existence, non-occurrence, negation, voidness,


pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content

of mind, presented idea, cognition

alambana = support, substratum, leaning on, dependent on, having as a base

or foundation

vritti = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

nidra = deep sleep

11 Recollection or memory (smriti) is mental modification caused by the inner

reproducing of a previous impression of an object, but without adding any other

characteristics from other sources.

(anubhuta vishaya asampramoshah smritih)

anubhuta = experienced

vishaya = objects of experience, impressions

asampramoshah = not being stolen, not being lost, not having addition

smritih = memory, remembering

Practice and non-attachment

12 These thought patterns (vrittis) are mastered (nirodhah, regulated, coordinated,

controlled, stilled, quieted) through practice (abhyasa) and non-attachment


(abhyasa vairagyabhyam tat nirodhah)

abhyasa = by or with practice, repeated practice

vairagyabhyam = non-attachment, by desirelessness or dispassion, neutrality

or absence of coloring, without attraction or aversion

tat = of those, through that of

nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration, coordination,

understanding, stilling, quieting, setting aside of

13 Practice (abhyasa) means choosing, applying the effort, and doing those actions

that bring a stable and tranquil state (sthitau).

(tatra sthitau yatnah abhyasa)

tatra = of these two (abhyasa and vairagya)

sthitau = stability, steadiness, stable tranquility, undisturbed calmness

yatnah = effort, persistent exertion, sustained struggle, endeavour

abhyasa = by or with practice, repeated practice

14 When that practice is done for a long time, without a break, and with sincere

devotion, then the practice becomes a firmly rooted, stable and solid foundation.

(sah tu dirgha kala nairantaira satkara asevitah dridha bhumih)

sah = that (practice)

tu = and, but, however

dirgha = long time (dirgha = long; kala = time)

nairantaira = without interruption, continually,

satkara = with devotion, sincerity, respect, reverence, positive attitude, right


asevitah = pursued, practiced, cultivated, attended to, done with assiduous


dridha-bhumih = stable, solid foundation, firmly rooted, of firm ground (dridha

= firm; bhumih = ground)

15 When the mind loses desire even for objects seen or described in a tradition or in

scriptures, it acquires a state of utter (vashikara) desirelessness that is called nonattachment


(drista anushravika vishaya vitrishnasya vashikara sanjna vairagyam)

drista = seen, perceived

anushravika = revealed, scriptural, heard in tradition

vishaya = objects, subjects, matters of experience

vitrishnasya = of one who is free from desire or craving

vashikara = supreme, mastery, total control

sanjna = awareness, consciousness, knowing

vairagyam = non-attachment, desirelessness, dispassion, neutrality or absence

of coloring, without attraction or aversion

16 Indifference to the subtlest elements, constituent principles, or qualities

themselves (gunas), achieved through a knowledge of the nature of pure

consciousness (purusha), is called supreme non-attachment (paravairagya).

(tat param purusha khyateh guna vaitrshnyam)

tat = that

param = is higher, superior, supreme, transcendent

purusha = pure consciousness, Self

khyateh = through knowledge, vision, discernment

guna = elements, prime qualities, constituents, attributes; (three gunas of

sattvas, rajas, tamas)

vaitrshnyam = state of freedom from desire or craving (for the gunas)

Types of concentration

17 The deep absorption of attention on an object is of four kinds, 1) gross (vitarka),

2) subtle (vichara), 3) bliss accompanied (ananda), and 4) with I-ness (asmita), and

is called samprajnata samadhi.

(vitarka vichara ananda asmita rupa anugamat samprajnatah)

vitarka = gross thought or reasoning

vichara = subtle thought

ananda = bliss, ecstasy

asmita = I-ness, individuality

rupa = appearances, nature, form

anugamat = accompanied by, associated with

samprajnatah = cognitive absorption, lower samadhi

18 The other kind of samadhi is asamprajnata samadhi, and has no object in which

attention is absorbed, wherein only latent impressions remain; attainment of this state

is preceded by the constant practice of allowing all of the gross and subtle fluctuations

of mind to recede back into the field from which they arose.

(virama pratyaya abhyasa purvah samskara shesha anyah)

virama = cessation, stopping, receding

pratyaya = cause, cognitive principle, content of mind, cognition

abhyasa = practice

purvah = preceding, coming before

samskara = deep impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits,

subliminal activators, traces

shesha = residual, subliminal

anyah = the other (the other samadhi)

Efforts and commitment

19 Some who have attained higher levels (videhas) or know unmanifest nature

(prakritilayas), are drawn into birth in this world by their remaining latent impressions

of ignorance, and more naturally come to these states of samadhi.

(bhava pratyayah videha prakriti layanam)

bhava = objective existence, becoming

pratyayah = cause, cognitive principle, content of mind, cognition

videha = bodiless, disembodied

prakriti = creative cause, subtlest material cause, nature

layanam = dissolved, merged into

20 Others follow a five-fold systematic path of 1) faithful certainty in the path, 2)

directing energy towards the practices, 3) repeated memory of the path and the

process of stilling the mind, 4) training in deep concentration, and 5) the pursuit of

real knowledge, by which the higher samadhi (asamprajnata samadhi) is attained.

(shraddha virya smriti samadhi prajna purvakah itaresham)

shraddha = unconditional faith, trust, confidence, belief, certainty

virya = energy, strength of will

smriti = memory, intentful remembrance, mindfulness

samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, entasy

prajna = wisdom, discernment, super cognitive

purvakah = preceding, coming before, prerequisite

itaresham = of other people

21 Those who pursue their practices with intensity of feeling, vigor, and firm

conviction achieve concentration and the fruits thereof more quickly, compared to

those of medium or lesser intensity.

(tivra samvega asannah)

tivra = rate is fast, speedy

samvega = momentum, force, vigor, conviction, enthusiasm

asannah = very close, near, speedy

22 For those with intense practices and intense conviction (1.21), there are three

more subdivisions of practice, those of mild intensity, medium intensity, and intense


(mridu madhya adhimatra tatah api visheshah

mridu = mild, slow

madhya = medium, middling

adhimatra = intense, strong

tatah = from that

api = also

visheshah = differentiation, distinction

Contemplation on AUM or OM

23 From a special process of devotion and letting go into the creative source from

which we emerged (ishvara pranidhana), the coming of samadhi is imminent.

(ishvara pranidhana va)

ishvara = creative source, pure consciousness, purusha, God, supreme Guru or


pranidhana = practicing the presence, sincerity, dedication, devotion,

surrender of fruits of practice

va = or

24 That creative source (ishvara) is a particular consciousness (purusha) that is

unaffected by colorings (kleshas), actions (karmas), or results of those actions that

happen when latent impressions stir and cause those actions.

(klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamristah purusha-vishesha ishvara

klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause


karma = actions,

vipaka = fruits of, maturing, ripening

ashayaih = by the vehicles, resting place, storage of traces, propensities,


aparamristah = untouched, unsmeared

purusha-vishesha = a consciousness, a special or distinct purusha (purusha =

a consciousness; vishesha = special, distinct)

ishvara = creative source, God, supreme Guru or teacher

25 In that pure consciousness (ishvara) the seed of omniscience has reached its

highest development and cannot be exceeded.

(tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam)

tatra = there, in that (in that special purusha)

niratishayam = unsurpassed, not exceeded by any others, limitless

sarvajna = all knowing (sarva = all; jna = knowing)

bijam = seed

26 From that consciousness (ishvara) the ancient-most teachers were taught, since

it is not limited by the constraint of time.

(purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat)

purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient

api = too, also

kalena = by time

anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous

27 The sacred word designating this creative source is the sound OM, called


(tasya vachakah pranavah)

tasya = of that

vachakah = designator, signifier, indicator, term

pranavah = the mantra AUM or OM

28 This sound is remembered with deep feeling for the meaning of what it


(tat japah tat artha bhavanam)

tat = its

japah = repeated remembrance

tat = its

artha = meaning

bhavanam = understanding with feeling, absorbing, dwelling upon

29 From that remembering comes the realization of the individual Self and the

removal of obstacles.

(tatah pratyak chetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavash cha)

tatah = thence

pratyak = individual

chetana = consciousness

adhigamah = understanding, realization, attainment

api = also

antaraya = of obstacles or impediments

abhavash = absence, disappearance, removal

cha = and, also

Obstacles and solutions

30 Nine kinds of distractions come that are obstacles naturally encountered on the

path, and are physical illness, tendency of the mind to not work efficiently, doubt or

indecision, lack of attention to pursuing the means of samadhi, laziness in mind and

body, failure to regulate the desire for worldly objects, incorrect assumptions or

thinking, failing to attain stages of the practice, and instability in maintaining a level of

practice once attained.

(vyadhi styana samshaya pramada alasya avirati bhranti-darshana alabdhabhumikatva

anavasthitatva chitta vikshepa te antarayah)

vyadhi = disease, illness, sickness

styana = mental laziness, inefficiency, idleness, procrastination, dullness

samshaya = indecision, doubt

pramada = carelessness, negligence

alasya = sloth, langour, laziness

avirati = sensuality, want of non-attachment, non-abstention, craving

bhranti-darshana = false views or perception, confusion of philosophies

(bhranti = false; darshana = views, perception)

alabdha-bhumikatva = failing to attain stages of practice (alabdha = not

obtaining; bhumikatva = stage, state, firm ground)

anavasthitatva = instability, slipping down, inability to maintain

chitta-vikshepa = distractions of the mind (chitta = mind field; vikshepa =

distractions, diversions)

te = they are, these are

antarayah = obstacles, impediments

31 From these obstacles, there are four other consequences that also arise, and

these are: 1) mental or physical pain, 2) sadness or dejection, 3) restlessness,

shakiness, or anxiety, and 4) irregularities in the exhalation and inhalation of breath.

(duhkha daurmanasya angam-ejayatva shvasa prashvasah vikshepa sahabhuva)

duhkha = pain (mental or physical)

daurmanasya = sadness, despair, dejection, frustration, depression, anguish

angam-ejayatva = shakiness, unsteadiness, movement, tremor of the limbs or

body (anga = limbs or body)

shvasa = inhalation, inspiration (implying irregular inhalation)

prashvasah = exhalation, expiration (implying irregular exhalation)

vikshepa = distractions

sahabhuva = companions, accompaniments, correlates

32 To prevent or deal with these nine obstacles and their four consequences, the

recommendation is to make the mind one-pointed, training it how to focus on a single

principle or object.

(tat pratisedha artham eka tattva abhyasah)

tat = those, their

pratisedha = prevention, negation, neutralizing, prohibition, opposing, voiding,


artham = for, for the purpose of, in order to

eka = single,

tattva = truth, principle, subject, reality

abhyasah = practice, cultivating that habit

Stabilizing and clearing the mind

33 In relationships, the mind becomes purified by cultivating feelings of friendliness

towards those who are happy, compassion for those who are suffering, goodwill

towards those who are virtuous, and indifference or neutrality towards those we

perceive as wicked or evil.

(maitri karuna mudita upekshanam sukha duhka punya apunya vishayanam

bhavanatah chitta prasadanam)

maitri = friendliness, pleasantness, lovingness

karuna = compassion, mercy

mudita = gladness, goodwill

upekshanam = acceptance, equanimity, indifference, disregard, neutrality

sukha = happy, comfortable, joyous

duhka = pain, misery, suffering, sorrow

punya = virtuous, meritorious, benevolent

apunya = non-virtuous, vice, bad, wicked, evil, bad, demerit, non-meritorious,

vishayanam = regarding those subjects, in relation to those objects

bhavanatah = by cultivating habits, by constant reflection, developing attitude,

cultivating, impressing on oneself

chitta = mind field, consciousness

prasadanam = purified, clear, serene, pleasant, pacified, undisturbed, peaceful,


34 The mind is also calmed by regulating the breath, particularly attending to

exhalation and the natural stilling of breath that comes from such practice.

(prachchhardana vidharanabhyam va pranayama)

prachchhardana = gentle exhalation through the nostrils

vidharanabhyam = expansion or regulation, control

va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)

pranasya = of prana

35 The inner concentration on the process of sensory experiencing, done in a way

that leads towards higher, subtle sense perception; this also leads to stability and

tranquility of the mind.

(vishayavati va pravritti utpanna manasah sthiti nibandhani)

vishayavati = of the sensing experience

va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)

pravritti = higher perception, activity, inclinations

utpanna = arising, appearing, manifesting

manasah = mind, mental, manas

sthiti = stability, steadiness, stable tranquility, undisturbed calmness

nibandhani = firmly establishes, causes, seals, holds

36 Or concentration on a painless inner state of lucidness and luminosity also brings

stability and tranquility.

(vishoka va jyotishmati)

vishoka = state free from pain, grief, sorrow, or suffering

va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)

jyotishmati = the bright effulgence, lucidity, luminosity, inner light, supreme or

divine light

37 Or contemplating on having a mind that is free from desires, the mind gets

stabilized and tranquil.

(vita raga vishayam va chittam)

vita = without, devoid of

raga = attachment, desires, attraction

vishayam = objects of the senses

va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)

chittam = of the consciousness of the mind-field

38 Or by focusing on the nature of the stream in the dream state or the nature of

the state of dreamless sleep, the mind becomes stabilized and tranquil.

(svapna nidra jnana alambanam va)

svapna = dream (focusing on the nature of the state of dreaming itself, not the

content of dreams)

nidra = sleep (focusing on the state itself, as an object)

jnana = knowledge, study, investigation, awareness, observation

alambanam = having as support for attention, object of concentration

va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)

39 Or by contemplating or concentrating on whatever object or principle one may

like, or towards which one has a predisposition, the mind becomes stable and tranquil.

(yatha abhimata dhyanat va)

yatha = as, according to

abhimata = one's own predisposition, choice, desire, want, like, familiarity,


dhyanat = meditate on

va = or (or other practices above in sutras 1.34-1.39)

After stabilizing the mind

40 When, through such practices (as previously described in 1.33-1.39), the mind

develops the power of becoming stable on the smallest size object as well as on the

largest, then the mind truly comes under control.

(parma-anu parama-mahattva antah asya vashikarah)

parma-anu= from the minutest (parma = most; anu = minutest, smallest)

parama-mahattva = ultimate magnitude (parama = ultimate, maximum;

mahattva = infinity, largeness magnitude)

antah = end, extending to

asya = of this, of his or hers (who has

vashikarah = mastery, power

41 When the modifications of mind have become weakened, the mind becomes like

a transparent crystal, and thus can easily take on the qualities of whatever object

observed, whether that object be the observer, the means of observing, or an object

observed, in a process of engrossment called samapattih.

(kshinna-vritti abhijatasya iva maneh grahitri grahana grahyeshu tat-stha tat-anjanata


kshinna-vritti = with modifications of mind weakened (kshinna = weakened;

vritti = modifications of mind)

abhijatasya = transparent, purified

iva = like

maneh = of a crystal

grahitri = the knower, apprehender, observer

grahana = process of knowing or apprehending, instrument of knowing

grahyeshu = the knowable, knowledge, apprehended objects

tat-stha = remaining in it, being stable on them, on which it stays or rests

tat-anjanata = taking on the coloring of that, coalescing with, appearing to

take the shape of the object

samapattih = engrossment, coincidence, complete absorption, transmute into

likeness, total balance

42 One type of such an engrossment (samapattih) is one in which there is a mixture

of three things, a word or name going with the object, the meaning or identity of that

object, and the knowledge associated with that object; this engrossment is known as

savitarka samapattih (associated with gross objects).

(tatra shabda artha jnana vikalpah sankirna savitarka samapattih)

tatra = there, among these, in that

shabda = sound, word

artha = meaning

jnana = knowledge, idea

vikalpah = with options

sankirna = mixed with, commingled, interspersed

savitarka = accompanied with gross thoughts (sa = with; vitarka = gross


samapattih = engrossment, coincidence, complete absorption, transmute into


43 When the memory or storehouse of modifications of mind is purified, then the

mind appears to be devoid of its own nature and only the object on which it is

contemplating appears to shine forward; this type of engrossment is known as

nirvitarka samapattih.

(smriti pari-shuddhau svarupa-shunya iva artha-matra nirbhasa nirvitarka)

smriti = of memory

pari-shuddhau = upon purification (pari = upon; shuddhau = purification)

svarupa-shunya = devoid of its own nature (shunya = devoid; svarupa = its

own nature)

iva = as it were

artha-matra = only the object (artha = object; matra = only)

nirbhasa = illuminative, shining brightly

nirvitarka = without a gross thought (nir = without; vitarka = gross thought)

44 In the same way that these engrossments operate with gross objects in savitarka

samapattih, the engrossment with subtle objects also operates, and is known as

savichara and nirvichara samapattih.

(etaya eva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma-vishaya vyakhyata)

etaya = by this

eva = also

savichara = accompanied by subtle thoughts (sa = with; vichara = subtle


nirvichara = devoid of subtle thoughts (nir = without; vichara = subtle


cha = and

sukshma-vishaya = having subtle for their objects (sukshma = subtle; vishaya

= objects)

vyakhyata = are explained, described, defined

45 Having such subtle objects extends all the way up to unmanifest prakriti.

(sukshma vishayatvam cha alinga paryavasanam)

sukshma = subtle

vishayatvam = of having as objects

cha = and

alinga = without a mark or trace, unmanifest prakriti (subtlest matter)

paryavasanam = extending up to, ending at

46 These four varieties of engrossment are the only kinds of concentrations

(samadhi) which are objective, and have a seed of an object.

(tah eva sabijah samadhih)

tah = these, those, they

eva = only

sabijah = with seed, seeded

samadhih = deep absorption of meditation, entasy

47 As one gains proficiency in the undisturbed flow in nirvichara, a purity and

luminosity of the inner instrument of mind is developed.

(nirvichara vaisharadye adhyatma prasadah)

nirvichara = devoid of subtle thoughts (nir = without; vichara = subtle


vaisharadye = with undisturbed flow,

adhyatma = spiritual, regarding the atman or true Self

prasadah = purity, luminosity, illumination, clearness

48 The experiential knowledge that is gained in that state is one of essential wisdom

and is filled with truth.

(ritambhara tatra prajna)

ritambhara = filled with higher truth, essence, supreme cognition

tatra = there

prajna = knowledge, wisdom, insight

49 That knowledge is different from the knowledge that is commingled with

testimony or through inference, because it relates directly to the specifics of the

object, rather than to those words or other concepts.

(shruta anumana prajnabhyam anya-vishaya vishesha-arthatvat)

shruta = testimony, heard, learned, from tradition

anumana = inference, reasoning, deduction

prajnabhyam = from those kinds of knowledge

anya-vishaya = having different objects (anya = different; vishaya = objects,

fields, realms, domains)

vishesha-arthatvat = relating to particular objects, purpose, or significance

50 This type of knowledge that is filled with truth creates latent impressions in the

mind-field, and those new impressions tend to reduce the formation of other less

useful forms of habitual latent impressions.

(tajjah samskarah anya samskara paribandhi)

tajjah = arising or producing from that

samskarah = deep impressions, residual imprints, activating imprints

anya = of other

samskara = deep impressions, residual imprints, activating imprints

paribandhi = impeding, obstructing, reducing, opposing, inhibiting

51 When even these latent impressions from truth filled knowledge recede along

with the other impressions, then there is objectless concentration.

(tasya api nirodhe sarva nirodhat nirbijah samadhih)

tasya = of that

api = too

nirodhe = receding, mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of

sarva = of all

nirodhat = through nirodhah (nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling,

mastery, integration, coordination, understanding, stilling, quieting, setting

aside of)

nirbijah = without a seed, seedless (nir = without; bijah = seed)

samadhih = deep absorption of meditation, entasy


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